Bermuda Studies

419 Bermuda

Origin: Tifway 419 Bermuda

Combining toughness with beauty, Tifway 419 has been the most popular sports turf for the last 40 years. Its dense, rapidly spreading growth habit means quick recovery from injury, making it one of the most durable hybrid Bermudas. Tifway 419 tolerates close mowing and is highly disease resistant. For use on fairways, roughs, sports fields, and commercial and residential lawns.

Tifway is a hybrid bermudagrass cross of Cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis germplasma. It is characterized as having a dark green color with medium fine textured leaves. Tifway hybrid bermudagrass is dense with a medium to low growth habit. This variety is a vigorous grower and thus establishes quickly at planting.

The 2001 NTEP trial conducted in Griffin, GA showed that Tifway 419 was shown to have better quality ratings than TifSport.


Temperature Range of Adaptation - Tifway grows best in warm climates within 45 degrees latitude to the equator. Temperatures in excess of 100 degrees F. (38 degrees C.) are readily tolerated by healthy Tifway. May become dormant after repeated winter frosts but recovers quickly when temperatures warm.

Mowing Tifway Bermuda Sod

Mow at 1.5 inch cutting height.   Mow no more than 1/3 of the leaf off at one mowing. 

Use sharp mower blades also,   catch and remove clippings. Tifway can be mowed with either reel or rotary   mower.

Mowing may be required on a 7   day interval in the growing season.

Water Quality Tolerance

On a suitably drained profile Tifway can tolerate soil concentration of 2500 ppm total salts. It is well adapted to "brown" water sources and is commonly used in municipal and food industry effluent land application systems.

Drought Tolerance

Tifway will survive droughts with minimal water availability. One to two inches (25 to 50 mm) of actual available water weekly to the plant will provide an acceptable turf surface. Tifway will survive at 1/2 inch (12 mm) irrigation per week, dependent on soil physics.

Traffic and Wear Tolerance

Tifway provides the best recuperative rates of all warm season turfgrasses. A vigorous regenerator.

Weed Tolerance

Tifway's dense growth, when properly maintained, efficiently competes with the presence of many turf weeds. Tifway easily tolerates broadcast application of selective herbicides.

Insect/Pest Tolerance

With the exception of certain leaf feeding insects, Tifway demonstrates tolerance or quick recovery from damage after pest control treatments.

Soil Fertility

Tifway grows best when soil pH is between 5.5 to 7.0. Soil levels of 100 pounds/acre (112 kg/hectare) of phosphorous and 150 to 200 pounds/acre to 224 kg/hectare) potassium will provide sufficient plant growth. Nitrogen applied at 1 pound/1000 sq. ft. per month will provide a healthy plant when combined with the recommended phosphorous and potassium.


Tifway is a sterile (no viable seed) Triploid plant species and is successfully propagated as sprigs (rhizomes, stolons and Stems) or as sod.

Common Bermuda

Common bermudagrass is drought resistant, grows on many soils, and makes a good turf if fertilized and mowed right. Common bermudagrass produces many unsightly seedheads, but in spite of this fault, it frequently is used on home lawns due to the ease and economy of establishment. Common bermuda may be planted from either seed or sprigs and with intensive management will provide a high quality turf. However, the newer hybrid bermudas are generally far superior. 


Description: Prefers full sun, drought resistant, can withstand heavy traffic. Can easily be planted from grass seed (although it was once only grown from sod and the new seed varieties are not as fine bladed as the sodded varieties). One of the South's favorites grass types. Grows in tropical, subtropical and transition zone areas. Found extensively on lawns, golf courses, sporting fields and coast areas.

Turns brown with the first drop in temperature. There are more cold tolerant varieties available. In warmer tropical areas, Bermuda retains a beautiful green color year round. This is a very aggressive grass and flower beds or other areas will be quickly overrun if not kept in check. Once established it is very difficult to remove due to its extensive root system.

· Texture: common Bermuda has a medium texture. Hybrid Bermuda is fine

· Cold Tolerance: good (some more than others)

· Shade Tolerance:: poor

· Traffic: good

· Watering: tolerates drought, but needs water weekly to remain green

· Mowing Height: varies between 1/2" — 2" Some newer hybrid varieties (Champion, FloraDwarf, Midlawn, Midfield, Tiffine, Tifgreen, & Tifdwarf) can be cut as low as 1/8", but are mostly suitable for putting greens)

First mowing of the season: after danger of hard freezes has passed, set your mower to lower than normal to remove as much dead top-growth as possible. Normally in mid-March when the soil temperature is around 55. Don't mow below 1/2" or you could damage the plant. Bag the clippings for this first mowing. Lawn will turn green when soil temperature warms to 60-65. Once the lawn has greened, mow at your normal height (2" for common and 1 — 1-1/2" for hybrids).

Never reduce the height of your lawn by more than one-third when mowing. Removing more than this can cause scalping and may take a long time to recover, during which, the grass is more susceptible to stress and further damage.

· Planting: seed, sod, plugs, or sprigs

· Pests: dead spot, mole crickets, sod webworms, armyworms, and dollar spot

· Aeration: may be aerated any time during the growing season as long as the lawn is not experiencing a drought. Aeration is not recommended after the lawn has gone dormant.

Celebration Bermuda

Celebration is a deep blue-green bermudagrass that has finished best in numerous university research studies for wear tolerance and recovery, drought resistance and tolerance and bermudagrass shade tolerance. Found in professional and college sports venues, golf courses and home lawns, Celebration performs well across a variety of applications. Celebration is currently being used throughout the southern United States and around the world.



· Uses: Golf, Commercial, Sports/Parks, Home

· Color: Dark Blue-Green

· Blade-width: 1.7 mm

· Feel: Soft

· Fall Color Retention: Very Good

· Spring Green Up: Very Good


· Soils: Sand, Clay

· Growth: Rhizomes/Stolons

· Wear: Excellent

· Injury Recovery: Excellent

· Insect Resistance: Very Good

· Diesease Resistance: Very Good


· Heat: Excellent

· Cold: Very Good

· Shade: Very Good

· Drought: Excellent

· Salt: Very Good


· Mower: Standard Rotary/Reel

· Height: 5-1.0″

· Weed Control: Very Good

TifTuf Bermuda

Description: TifTuf was selected for its drought tolerance and ability to maintain turf quality under drought stress. In our own experience we believe that once TifTuf is established, it will not need irrigation, even during moderate drought. University drought tests have TifTuf consistently ranked as the highest in quality and appearance over time compared to all other Bermudagrasses. It is a sterile hybrid Bermudagrass that spreads by above ground runners (stolons) and below ground rhizomes to form a lush green turf.

Uses: Due to its drought tolerance, TifTuf is replacing Tifway (419) as the new standard turfgrass in residential and commercial landscapes as well as other high use areas like parks and sports fields.

Adaptability: TifTuf is adaptable throughout typical Bermudagrass ranges in the Deep South, but displays greater cold tolerance than other types. In NTEP trials in Haysville, KS, in 2013-2014 TifTuf was recorded with over 90% survivability at -6°F outperforming Tifway and Celebration in the trials.

Adaptability Zones: One full zone hardier than other Bermudagrasses into Zone 6b. Range is from Zone 6b to 11a on the 2012 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map or Zones 1-3 on the Turfgrass Hardiness Map.

Dormancy: TifTuf goes dormant for the winter, but it offers excellent spring green up and green color retention into fall. Superior over Tifway for both these attributes.

Shade Tolerance: TifTuf thrives in full sun to partial shade. It is more shade tolerant than Tifway.

Drought Tolerance & Water Management: While other Bermudas survive drought conditions by going dormant and greening up at the first exposure to moisture, TifTuf stays green without going dormant under drought stress. In UGA tests it uses 38% less water than Tifway while maintaining better turf quality. Optimum water management, as with any grass, is dependent on soil physical characteristics and climate. While the watering rule-of-thumb for every other grass types is to provide 1” of water per week, in our southeastern climate TifTuf simply doesn’t need to be irrigated when grown in good soils once its roots are established.

Weed Tolerance: A well-maintained, vigorous TifTuf lawn with good turf density will inhibit weed establishment, but to be sure, use of a pre-emergent herbicide (specified for use on Bermuda lawns on the label) is recommended in the spring and fall. TifTuf is tolerant to most herbicides, but carefully read and follow all herbicide product labels.

Insect Tolerance: TifTuf is susceptible to the typical Bermudagrass insects, but recovers well with proper insect control.

Disease Resistance: Diseases are a minor problem with TifTuf when fertility is managed correctly. We recommend annual spring compost topdressing with our Soil3 organic compost to minimize disease impact (more info at and help control thatch.

Traffic & Wear Tolerance: TifTuf withstands wear and tear from “traffic” better than any other Bermudas, making it the best choice for high impact activities such as football, soccer, baseball, and golf. Because of its rapid growth rate, when managed properly, recovery is normally faster than other warm season grasses with the same amount of wear.

Fertility: Apply between 3 and 6 pounds of nitrogen per 1,000 square feet annually, during the growing season. Select a fertilizer that is labeled for use on Bermudagrass lawns. Too much fertility will result in a thatchy and unhealthy lawn. Always fertilize based on a soil test. Don’t use high nitrogen “winterizers” in the fall. Compost topdressing with Soil3 and aerating in the spring, after spring green up, can supply one of TifTuf’s fertilizer applications for the year. The practice of compost topdressing with Soil3 is true organic lawn care.

Soil pH: Bermuda thrives on a neutral to alkaline soil with a pH range of 6 to 7. Do not apply lime to Bermuda without a soil test.

Mowing Height: Maintain cutting height of 0.5-2 inches. Mowing may be required on a 4 to 7 day interval. Mow no more than 1/3 of the leaf off at one mowing. Use sharp mower blades. Can be mowed with rotary mowers or use our Allett reel mowers for a cleaner cut.

Establishment: TifTuf boasts aggressive establishment from sod during the growing season, yet TifTuf sod can be laid all year long, even when dormant. Complete sod establishment instructions are on our website. 

Because TifTuf is a sterile hybrid it is not available from seed.

Quality: TifTuf is only available as blue tag certified. The unauthorized/unlicensed commercial propagation or transfer of this product to third parties for such propagation is prohibited by the patent owner. Patten Seed Company/Super-Sod is a Licensed Grower of TifTuf in Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina and markets certified TifTuf in the Eastern US.

U3 Bermuda


U-3 Bermuda is a selection of common bermuda. It was originally selected from test plots in Georgia because of its texture, cold tolerance, durability and rapid spread. It has a somewhat finer leaf texture and is more cold tolerant than other turf-type common bermudas. It is the most popular bermuda sod sold in Oklahoma and many other areas of the Southwest. It is recommended for residential and commercial landscapes, roadsides, golf courses, athletic fields and provides excellent erosion control in problem areas.

Has high light requirement-requires full sunlight most of day. Should not be used in shady areas.

Has very good heat tolerance. More cold tolerant than most turf type bermudas. See shaded portion of map below for suggested areas of use.

Enters dormant stage in winter months. Stops growing when temperatures drop below 50F for sustained period, turns tan winter color. Requires 65F ground temperature for significant growth.

Will tolerate sustained periods of drought if well established. However, responds well to irrigation during dry conditions if higher quality turfgrass desired. Should be kept moist during sustained periods of extreme cold.

Forms dense, deep rooted turf when well maintained. Excellent wear resistance and will withstand heavy traffic. Very good injury recoveryspreads rapidly by rhizomes in warm season.


The amount and frequency of watering, mowing and fertilizing depends upon the desired appearance of your turfgrass. Guidelines for maintenance procedures are offered below as good rules of thumb to follow on an as needed basis in maintaining healthy turfgrass with an attractive appearance.

Apply 1/2″ to 1″ of water in a single application about once per week during hot and dry conditions. To promote a deep, durable root system; deep soaking water applications are preferred over short and frequent shallow water applications.

For a high quality appearance keep mowed height 314 to 2 inches. Mow regularly with a reel or rotary mower allowing the clippings to remain. Irregular mowing practices may result in high buildups of thatch, which will require verticutting, mulching or removal. Suggested not to removing more than 113 of the leaf growth during a single mowing.

Apply 1/2 to 1 Ibs per 1000 SF of a full analysis fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphate and potassium; such as 28-13-13 in mid-April and 9-24-24 in midSeptember. To maintain a deep green color, nitrogen may be applied monthly at a rate of 1 Ib per 1000 SF May thru August. Suggest obtaining a soil test for specific fertilizer requirements.

Weed growth competes with turfgrass growth. Good maintenance practices help eliminate weed problems. However, it may be necessary even under the best of care, to apply herbicides to maintain weed free turfgrass. Contact your local County Extension agent or herbicide dealer for recommendations for your type turfgrass.